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Museum of Comparative Zoology 

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Vermont Botanical and 
^ Bird Clubs 

APRIL, 1916 

Published Annually by the Clubs 

I I 


burlixgtox, vt. : 

Free Press Printing Company, 






PRESIDENT, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury. 
VICE-PRESIDENT, Harry F. Perkins, Burlington. 
SECRETARY, George P. Burns, Burlington. 
TREASURER, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington. 
EDITORS, George L. Kirk, Rutland, botanical department; A. E. 
Lambert, Middlebury, bird department. 

LIBRARIAN, Miss Phoebe M. Towle, Burlington. 

Committee on 1916 Summer Meeting, 

Dana S. Carpenter, Middletown Springs. 

Elroy Kent, East Wallingford. 

Rev. and Mrs. G. W. French, Middletown Springs. 

Committee on 1917 Winter Meeting. 
Harry F. Perkins, chairman. 


AJ-a 16 1921 

Joint Bulletin No. 2 April, 1916 

Published Annually by the Clubs 

One copy of this bulletin is sent to each member. Extra copies 
of bulletins 1 to 8 of the Vermont Bird Club and 1 to 9 of the Vermont 
Botanical Club and Joint Bulletin No. 1 may be obtained of the librarian 
at Burlington at 10 cents each, postpaid, to club members and 25 cents 
to outsiders. 


Editorial 4 

Report of Secretary 4 

Report of Treasurer 6 

Report of Summer Meeting of 1915 7 

Additions and Corrections to New Vermont Flora, W. W. Eggleston. . 9 

Additions to Vermont Hepatic List, Annie Lorenz 13 

Uncommon Birds Found in the Vicinity of Rutland, Duane E. Kent. .14 
Notes on Plants of the West River Valley, Leston A. Wheeler. . . .(. . .17 

Life History of a Young Chipping Sparrow, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 17 

One Afternoon's Botanizing, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn 19 

Report of Course in Bird Study at U. V. M. Summer School, Harry 

F. Perkins 20 

Botanizing in St. Johnsbury, Inez A. Howe 21 

Notes on the Song Sparrow, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 22 

The Prairie Horned Lark, George L. Kirk 25 

The Birds' Christmas Tree, Adelaide L. Denton 25 

Bird Lists 26 

The Mammals of Vermont, George L Kirk 28 

Botanical Notes 34 

Bird Notes 35 

4 Joint BULLETIN 2 


The joint bulletin of the Bird and Botanical Clubs appears this 
year for the first time under the direction of two editors, one rep- 
resenting each department. As two heads are always better than one 
the new arrangement should result in a larger and more beneficial pub- 
lication. But the editors must have the cooperation of the members in 
making this improvement. For some inexplainable reason there has 
been a dearth of botanical material the last two years. This should 
not occur again. Every member can at least contribute some short 

The article on the mammals of Vermont printed elsewhere in 
this bulletin does not properly belong to a publication on botany and 
birds. The subject is one which has long been neglected and as the 
manuscript was ready for the printer and there was no other means 
of getting it into print the article was included in this bulletin after 
consultation with the officers of the joint club. 


George P. Burns. 

The 21st annual winter meeting of the Vermont Botanical Club 
and the 15th annual winter meeting of the Vermont Bird Club were 
held at the Bardw r ell hotel, Rutland, January 21 and 22. The meeting 
was called to order by President Ezra Brainerd with a good num- 
ber of members present. The chief business of the morning session 
was the adoption of the report of the committee on amalgamation ap- 
pointed at the last winter meeting. The committee report was made 
by the chairman and was as follows: 

"Whereas, it is the prevalent opinion of the members of the Ver- 
mont Botanical club and of the Vermont Bird club, that their mutual 
advantage calls for joint action in arranging for the annual meetings 
and the publication of the bulletin; therefore, 

Resolved, (1) That hereafter, until either club orders otherwise, 
the two clubs in joint session at the winter meeting shall elect a com- 
mon board of officers, consisting of a president, vice-president, secre- 
tary, treasurer, librarian, and two editors for the annual bulletin, 
one from each club. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 5 

(2) That for membership in each or either of the associated 
clubs the initiation fee shall be 50 cents as heretofore, and the annual 
dues thereafter 50 cents. 

(3) That the ordinary expenses for the two annual meetings 
and for the publication of the joint annual bulletin shall be paid out 
of the joint funds collected from the members of the two clubs for 
initiation fees and annual dues." 

The following officers were elected: President, Dr. Ezra Brainerd; 
vice-president, H. F. Perkins; secretary, George P. Burns; treasurer, 
Nellie F. Flynn; librarian, Phoebe Towle; editors, George L. Kirk and 
A. E. Lambert. 

The clubs voted to hold the summer meeting at Wallingford and 
the president appointed Mr. Carpenter, chairman of the committee. 

The clubs voted to hold the next winter meeting at Burlington and 
Prof. H. F. Perkins was made chairman of the committee on winter 

The report of the treasurer was read and adopted. 

The clubs passed the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That the Vermont. Botanical club and the Vermont 
Bird club hereby express their appreciation of the efforts of the local 
members of the two clubs for their efforts which made it possible to 
have a very successful meeting." 

The meeting adjourned in time to allow the members to catch 
the morning trains north and every one left feeling that he had had 
a most profitable time. 

The following new members were admitted: 

Botanical section: Mrs. I. R. Doane, Springfield, Vt.; E. F. Geb- 
hardt, 404 College street, Burlington, Vt; Mr. E. L. Rand, 272 South 
Winooski avenue, Burlington, Vt. ; Mrs. E. L. Rand, 272 South Winooski 
avenue, Burlington, Vt.; Mr. O. S. Presbrey, 109 Summit street, Bur- 
lington, Vt.; Mrs. O. S. Presbrey, 109 Summit street, Burlington, Vt.; 
Miss Mary E. Coventry, 109 Summit street, Burlington, Vt; Mrs. Harry 
L. Winter, South Willard street, Burlington, Vt; Miss Grace Palmer, 
South Willard street, Burlington, Vt.; Miss Mabel E. Steele, 36 Port- 
land street, St Johnsbury, Vt.; J. H. Macomber, 400 South Winooski 
avenue, Burlington, Vt.; Mrs. J. H. Macomber, 400 South Winooski 
avenue, Burlington, Vt; Richard Marble, Woodstock, Vt. ; L. H. Flint, 
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt.; Miss Margaret H. Ross, 18 
South Main street, Rutland, Vt.; Miss Ada Porter Crain, Springfield, 

6 Joint Bulletin* 2 

Vt; Mrs. Fannie W. Raymenton, Cavendish, Vt.; Raymond D. Flana- 
gan, Cuttingsville, Vt. : Miss Belle Robinson, Williamstown, Vt. 

Bird section: R. C. Spaulding, 182 South Main street, Rutland, Vt.: 
Mrs. R. C. Spaulding, 182 South Main street, Rutland, Vt.; Mrs. E. F. 
Gebhardt, 404 College street, Burlington, Vt.; Miss Ruth Bruce, Will- 
iamstown, Vt. ; Mrs. Walter B. Simons, Williamstown, Vt. ; Richard 
Marble, Woodstock, Vt. ; Mrs. Allen M. Fletcher, Miss Fannie Fletcher, 
Proctorsville, Vt.; Harry C. Ridlon, Springfield, Vt. ; Miss Ada Porter 
Crain. Springfield. Vt. 


Nellie F. Fhjnn. 


Cash on hand, Jan. 28, 1915 $ 30.46 

Annual dues from members 93.90 

Club pin .65 

Total receipts $125.01 


Half bill printing bulletin $ 32.70 

Postage 18.06 

Printing programs, notices, &c 7.53 

Printing receipts and cards 3.18 

Dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 3.00 

Half stenographer's and typewriting bills 1.63 

Stationery 1.75 

Librarian, subscription to Rhodora 1.50 

Half bill running lantern, winter meeting, 1915 1.00 

Total expenditures $ 70.41 

Cash on hand. Jan. 19, 1916 54.60 


Life membership fund in Chittenden Co. Trust Co $140.00 

Accrued interest on same 5.64 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 7 



Cash on hand, Feb. 1, 1915 $ 50.01 

Annual dues for members 55.60 

Total receipts $105.61 


Half bill printing joint bulletin $ 32.76 

Expense of lecturer, winter meeting, 1915 16.50 

Postage 15.66 

Printing programs, notices, &c 10.91 

Dues to Audubon society 5.00 

Dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 3.00 

Secretary's expenses 2.80 

Printing dues cards and coin carriers 1.82 

Stationery 1.74 

Half stenographer's and typewriting bills 1.63 

Half bill for running lantern, winter meeting, 1915 1.00 

Total expenditures $ 92.85 

Cash on hand, Jan. 19, 1916 12.76 


Life membership fund in Chittenden Co. Trust Co $ 30.00 

Accrued interest same 3.49 


Nellie F. Flynn. 

The annual field meeting of the clubs was held at St. Johnsbury, 
July 6-10, the Fairbanks museum threw open its doors to us and we 
met each evening to take care of the day's collecting, to talk over 
the day's doings and make plans for the next day. 

The forenoon of Tuesday, the 6th, was spent in Danville. On the 
way a fine station for the ragged robin, Lychnis Flos-caciili was 
seen and some specimens taken. The small toadflax, Linaria minor, 
was growing along the railroad track at Danville station. Two 

8 Joint Bulletin 2 

wooded swamps were visited here. One had nothing of particular 
interest, but the other had a goodly number of that rare orchid, Calypso 
borealis. It was unfortunately past its blooming period but there were 
quantities of the twayblade, Listera eonrallarioides and the rein orchis, 
Habenaria obtusata just in their prime. The showy and yellow lady 
slippers, Cypripedium hirsutum and C. parviflorum var. pubescens 
grew here, too, as well as other interesting swamp plants. 

On the way back to St. Johnsbury two other wooded swamps were 
visited. There were quantities of Habenaria obtusata here also but no 
Listera. The one-flowered pyrola, Moneses uni flora, took its place and 
was abundant in the moss, while the twin-flower, Linnaea borealis var. 
americana was rioting over everything on the ground. 

In the afternoon some rich woods were explored and among other 
things Goldie's fern, Aspidium Goldianum. the narrow-leaved spleen- 
wort. Asplenium angustifolium. and the club moss, Lycopodium lucidu- 
lum var. porophilum were found. 

Wednesday was spent at Barton at the junction of the Connecticut 
and Passumpsic rivers. The false asphodel, Tofieldia glutinosa, and the 
rein orchis, Habenaria flara. were growing on the wet banks of the 
Connecticut, the pearl wort, Sagina procumbens. and the blunt-leaved 
sandwort, Arenaria lateriflora, in a ravine- leading down to the river, 
and on the higher ground back of the river was the bearberry, Arc- 
tostaphylos Vva-ursi. and other interesting plants. In a pool on top of 
the rocks 10 or 12 feet above the surface of the water, right at the 
junction of the two rivers, was the horned pondweed, Zannichellia palus- 
tris var. pedunculated 

Thursday was too stormy for any botanizing, but a number braved 
the elements and tramped to Miss Howe's farm and had a good supper 
and a jolly time. 

After Thursday's storm it was too wet to climb Lunenburgh Moun- 
tain Friday so we looked over some swampy woods and walked to the 
village. The adder's mouth, Mi< rostylis unifolia, and the adder's tongue 
fern, Ophiglossum vulgatum were collected. 

Side trips were made to Lake "Willoughby, Lyndonville, etc., by 
some of the party, and Friday evening Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Brooks en- 
tertained us at their beautiful home. 

Vermont Botanical axd Bird Club 9 



W. W. Eggleston. 

Because of the great amount of field work which has been done 
since the manuscript for the new Vermont Flora was prepared, and the 
changes in nomenclature and errors and omissions which resulted be- 
cause of the hurried manner in which it was necessary to handle the 
final copy and the proofs, it is thought advisable to publish a list of 
additions and corrections to the Flora. The following covers the ground 
Page 156. Aspidium cristatum X marginale add, Our most common 

hybrid fern, (Kirk). 
Page 159. Botrychium obliquum var. oneidense add, Ira, (Carpenter). 
Equisetum pratense add, Brandon, (Winslow) ; Roches- 
ter, (Dutton). 
Page 160. Lycopodium sabinae folium add, Montpelier, (C. H. Knowl- 

ton, W. H. Blanchard). 
Page 160. Lycopodium lucidulum var. porophilum add, St. Johnsbury. 
Page 164. Potamogeton Vaseyi add, Coggman Pond, West Haven, 
(Ross); Rutland, (Kirk). Sagittaria heterophylla add, 

of western Vermont. 

Page 165. Agropyron caninum change to, Moist ledges, Burlington. 
(Jones). Agropyron Novae-Angliae Scribner in Flora 
of Vermont 9, 103, 1900. Cliffs of Lake Willoughby and 
Smugglers' Notch. A. tenerum omit, (A. Novae-Angliae) 
Willoughby Mt., Smugglers' Notch. Add, (A. caninoides 
Beal). Dry warm rocky wood-lands and ledges. 
Page 166. Bromus altissimus add, Otter Creek, Rutland; Poultney 
River, (Kirk). Bromus incanus add, Otter Creek, Rut- 
land; Poultney River; Lake Champlain, Ferrisburg, 
Page 167. Cinna latifolia add, of western Vermont. 
Page 168. Echinochloa muricata* (Michx.) Fernald. Manchester, 
Aug. 22, 1903. (22 W. H. Blanchard). Festuca rubra var. 
subvillosa add, *. 
Page 172. Puccinellia airoides (Nutt.) Wats. & Coult. Canadian Pacific 
Railroad yards, Newport, July 26, 1904. (A. A. Eaton). 
Page 173. Carex canescens add, Mt. Mansfield, (Churchill). 
Page 175. Carex festucacea var. brevior add, South Burlington, (C. H. 
Knowlton). Carex laxiculmis var. coputata add, of west- 
ern Vermont. 

10 Joint Bulletin 2 

Page 17G. Carex luxi flora var. latifolia add, of western Vermont. 
Page 177. Carex retrorsa var. Robinsonii Fernald. Brookside, Will- 

iamstown Gulf, (C. H. Knowlton). Carex rosea var. 

minor add, Burlington, (Knowlton). 
Page 179. Carex varia var. colorata Bailey. Dry, open woods, Brandon 

and Burlington, (C. H. Knowlton). Change Fimbristy- 

lis autumnalis to F. Frankii Steud. 
Page 181. Scirpus atrovirens add, Swanton, Wells River, very abun- 
dant at Alburg, (Knowlton). Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl. 

Pasture bog, Townshend, (Wheeler). Scirpus sylvaticus 

add, Common, West Haven, Fairhaven, (Ross and Kirk). 

Scirpus sylvaticus var. Bisscllii Fernald. With the 

species, Townshend, (Wheeler). 
Page 182. Peltandra virginica add, Cranberry swamp, Pownal, (Grace 

G. Niles). Lemna minor add, of the lower altitudes. 

Spirodela polyrhiza add, of the lower altitudes. 
Page 183. Tradescantia virginiana L. Escape, Townshend, (Wheeler). 
Page 184. Juncus marginatus add, Ball Mt., Jamaica, (Dobbin); V. S. 

Reservation, Townshend, (Wheeler). Juncus militaris 

Bigel. In several feet of water, Sunset Lake, Marlboro, 

Page 186. Aplcctrum hyemale change to, Rich woods in low altitudes of 

western Vermont, local and rare. St. Johnsbury, (Inez 

A. Howe). 
Page 190. Salix alba var. cacrulea* change to, Eunice D. Smith. 

Salix lucida var. angustifolia add, Swamp, Newport. 

Page 191. Alnvs crispa var. mollis add. Occasional along West River 

to Jamaica, (Wheeler). 
Page 192. Alnus rugosa add, Rare in lower Connecticut Valley. Cas- 

tanea dentata add, Up West River to Townshend, small 

grove two miles above village. A couple of trees near 

West Jamaica, (Wheeler). 
Page 194. Humulus Lupulus L. add*. Humulus americana Nuttall Proc. 

Acad. Sci. Philadelphia 181. (1848). The native plant is 

known to occur in northern Maine, northern Vermont 

and across our northern borders into the western 

mountains. Parietaria pennsylvanioa change Jamaica 

to Townshend. 
Page 195. Polygonum arifolium add, Townshend, (Wheeler). 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 11 

Page 197. Atriplex patula L. Alburg, abundant, (C. H. Knowlton). 

Page 198. Arenaria macrophylla add Steep wooded slope, East Dover, 
June, 1905, (Miss S. J. Ballard). West River, (Wheeler). 
Birdseye Mt., Castleton, (Carpenter). 

Page 199. Dianthus Armeria add, Well established in Retreat Park, 
Brattleboro, (Wheeler). Dianthus barbatus add, Mid- 
dletown Springs, (Carpenter). Roadside escape, New- 
fane, (Wheeler). Dianthus plumarius add, Cemetery 
escape, Jamaica, (Wheeler). 

Page 200. Silene Armeria add, Ira, (Carpenter); Stratton, (Wheeler). 
Stellaria borealis var. isophylla Fernald Rhod. 16: 144- 
151. Barton, Wells River, (Knowlton). 

Page 203. Ranunculus repens the double-flowered form add, Jamaica, 
(Wheeler). Thalictrum polygamum var. hebecarpwm 
Fernald. Montgomery Notch, (Underwood and Carpen- 
ter). Menispermum canadense, add W. H. before 

Page 204. Benzoin aestivale add, Brattleboro, (Wheeler). Sassafras 
variifolium var. albidum. (Nutt.) Fernald. See Rhodora 
15:16. For Sassafras variifolium. 

Page 205. B. striata Andrz. change to Barbarea vulgaris var. longisil- 
iquosa Carion. 

Page 206. Dentaria maxima add, Montpelier, (C. H. Knowlton). 
Draba arabisans add, Birdseye Mt., Castleton, (Ross). 

Page 207. Hesperis matronalis add, Townshend, (Wheeler). Lepidium 
campestre add, Newfane, (Wheeler). 

Page 213. Fragaria virginiana var. terraenovae (Rydb.) Fernald & 
Wiegand. Meadow, Middlebury, June 29, 1902, 
(Brainerd). Potentilla Anserina var. sericea add, Will- 
iamstown Gulf, (C. H. Knowlton). 

Page 214. Potentilla intermedia L. Railroad yard, Rutland, (Kirk). 
Potentilla pumila Poir. Putney Mt., Brookline, (Wheel- 
er). Potentilla recta add, West Haven, (Underwood & 

Page 217. Sanguisorba minor add,*. 

Page 221. Polygala verticillata omit, Townshend, (Wheeler). 

Page 222. Euphorbia hirsuta first name change to, E. glyptosperma 
Engelm. (Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small. 
Euphorbia Peplus, change (Blanchard) to (W. H. 

12 Joint Bulletin* 2 

Page 226. Viola lanceolata change, Townshend to Jamaica. 

Page 228. Li/thrum Salicaria, change (Jesup. Sargent) to (Jesup and 
Sargent), add, Middletown Springs, (Carpenter). 

Page 229. Myriophyllum spicatum add, of the Champlain Valley. 

Page 232. Kalmia latifolia add, Follows Baker Brook to near Williams- 
ville Village and scattering shrubs have been found on 
South Hill in Jamaica, (Wheeler). 

Page 234. Lysimachia producta add, Townshend, (Wheeler). 

Page 235. Steironema lanceolatum add, Ferrisburg, (Kirk). 

Page 236. Xymphoides lacunosum add, Lake St. Catherine, (Carpen- 
ter). Apocynum cannabinum var. hypercifolium (Ait.) 
Gray. Banks of the Connecticut River, East Barnet, 
(Underwood & Carpenter). Hartland, Underwood. 

Page 237. Ipomea purpurea, add,*. Phlox subulata, add, Middletown, 

Page 238. Lappula defiexa (Wahlenb) Garcke. Roadside, Derby, (J. 

R. Churchill). Myosotis arvensis add, Brattleboro, 

(Wheeler). Myosotis laxa add, Fairhaven, (Underwood 

& Carpenter). Myosotis scorpioides, add, *. Symphytum 

asperrimum add, Townshend, (Wheeler). 

Page 240. Mentha gentilis add, Middletown, (Carpenter). Prunella 
vulgaris var. lanceolata (Barton) Fernald. Manchester 
(Mary A. Day). Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata forma 
iodocalyx Fernald. Sandy barrens, Westminster, (B. L. 

Page 241. Pycnanthemum muticum add Clarendon, (Kirk). Teucrium 
occidentale add, Otter Creek and Poultney River, (Kirk). 
Gardiners Island, (Kirk & Ross). 

Page 243. Gerardia flava change, Townshend to Brattleboro. Ilysanthes 
diibia change to, Wet shores and ditches of the lower 
altitudes. North in the Connecticut Valley to Barnet. 

Page 245. Utricularia resupinata change, Townshend to Jamaica. 

Page 246. Gal i inn lanceolatum. First name change to. G. circaezans 
Michx. Rich woods of the lower altitudes; common. 
Norwich, (Eggleston). Galium Mollugo add, Newport, 
(C. H. Knowlton). 

Page 248. Valeriana officinalis add, Stratton, (Wheeler). 

Page 249. Specularia perfoliata add, Townshend, (Wheeler), Achillea 
Ptarmica add,*. Ambrosia trifida var. integrifolia add, 
Middletown, (Carpenter). 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 13 

Page 250. Artemisia annua L. Middletown Springs, (Carpenter). 

Page 251. Aster macrophyllus var. ianthinus (Burgess) Fernald. 
Wells River, (C. H. Knowlton). 

Page 252. Centaurea consimilis Bor. Manchester, (Mrs. Emily H. 

Page 253. Chrysanthemum Parthenium (L.) Bernh. Townshend, 

Page 254. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Burlington, (C. H. Knowlton). 

Page 255. Hieracium floribundum change, Brattleboro to Townshend. 
Krigia virginica add, Tinmouth, (Carpenter). 

Page 256. Prenanthes alba change, West River to Brattleboro. 
Prenanthes altissima var. hispidula add, West Dummer- 
ston. (Wheeler). 

Page 257. Senecio obovatus add, Ledges in woods, Brandon, (Knowl- 
ton). Solidago canadensis var. gilvocanescens Proctor, 
(Eggleston), (Gray Herbarium). Solidago Cutleri. The 
specimens from Mt. Horrid, (Dutton) and Lunenburg, 
(Balch) belong in S. Randii. 

Page 258. Solidago Randii add, Mt. Horrid, (Dutton); Lunenburg, 
( W. E. Balch) ; rocky shore of West River, Jamaica, 
(Wheeler). Solidago rugosa var. villosa (Pursh) Pern- 
aid. Summit of highway, Arlington to Grout's Mills 
(2,740 ft.), Stratton, 2043 (Eggleston). 

Page 221. Geranium molle L. Persisting in lawn, Rutland, (Kirk). 


FOR 1915 

Annie Lorenz. 

There are three additions to the Vermont hepatic list for 1915, 
bringing the number accredited to the state up to 122. There are also 
some changes, both nomenclatorial, and in the way of segregations, 
notably in the genus Madotheca. As they do not affect the census, and 
as Dr. Evans has not yet published his notes on the subject, they will 
not be discussed here. 

The first species, Scapania paludicola, Loeske & K. M., has been 
reported from several stations, the earliest collection in the writer's 

14 Joint Bulletin - 2 

herbarium is by Mr. Frank Dobbin, at Jamaica, in 1911. It has been 
collected also at Franklin. Willoughby and Burke. 

The other two, both Lophoziae, were collected at Willoughby dur- 
ing the St. Johnsbury meeting. L. heterocolpa (Thed.) Howe was 
abundant in the woods south of the cliffs, on earthy banks among the 
limestone ledges. This is one of the three members of the limestone- 
group of Lophozia at present reported from New England, and Wil- 
loughby is the only station where all three are found, the other two, 
L. badensis (Gottsche) Schiffn; and L. Kanrini (Limpr.) St., being 
fairly abundant. 

L. longidens (Lindb.) Macoun grew on the Mt. Hor side of the 
lake on a granite boulder in the woods. Both these species ap- 
peared at just about the places where the writer expected them. There 
are now 15 species reported first from Willoughby, and the end is not 



Duane E. Kent. 

During the last 12 years I have spent the majority of my leisure 
time in field work, studying birds and mammals in the immediate vi- 
cinity of Rutland. It is very easy to look over a certain territory and 
locate the more common of our wild friends, but the surprises, and al- 
most unbelievable things happen after we have looked over the terri- 
tory, as we think, thoroughly, and then find that we have been over- 
looking certain birds that are summer residents, for the simple reason 
that we thought they could not be found. This is what I have 
noticed in my experience. 

Owing to the geographical lay of Rutland close to the mountains, 
we have some bird life that is not usually found in a locality situated 
in the transition zone, as we are here. 

I have some friends interested in bird study, who tell me that they 
find more varied bird life here than in any other place they have visited 
in New England. The reason for this is that we are situated at the 
foot of the Green Mountains, whose altitude rises considerably above 
the lower levels of the Canadian zone. Also, we have several fine 
sphagnum swamps, and some of the animal, plant and bird life found 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 15 

amid such environments is the same as that in a territory strictly in 
the Canadian zone. As we are situated in the valley of Otter Creek, we 
have a large list of water birds, both migrants and summer residents. 

On April 25, 1915, Mr. G. L. Kirk and I were looking over a patch 
of woods, for great horned owls, and we noticed that pine-siskins were 
very plentiful. We commenced looking for the nests, and in a short 
time we located one in a small hemlock about 15 feet from the 
ground. This nest contained four birds, but a few days. old. This is 
the only pine-siskin's nest that has ever been reported in this vicinity. 
The eggs must have been laid as early as April 10. About 20 years 
ago, when I was at my former home in East Wallingford, about the 
middle of April, I located a siskin's nest containing four fresh eggs. 
This was at an altitude of about 1,750 feet. 

This last spring (1915), I located three pairs of red-breasted 
nuthatches, one nesting about one and one-half miles from Rutland city. 
The nests of the other two I failed to find, but I am positive that one 
of them bred, as I saw them in the same patch of woods a number of 
times during the spring and early summer. This was the first time that 
I had ever seen these birds in the valley near Rutland during the breed- 
ing season. 

I was also very much surprised to find winter wrens about two 
miles from Rutland city. Last spring I found four nests, and one 
showed that it had been used, but probably the year previous. None of 
the other nests was used, and, as I did not see any of the birds or 
hear them singing, I thought that they were not nesting there the 
past season. But finding one nest which showed that it had contained 
young birds, was conclusive evidence that the winter wren is one of 
our summer residents here in the valley. 

Black-throated blue and Canadian warblers, hermit thrushes, and' 
white-throated sparrows breed each year only a short distance from 
Rutland. Great-horned and long-eared owls nest each year in swampy 
woods near; and we have to go back only a few miles to find red-tailed 
and goshawks and Bicknell's and olive-backed thrushes raising young. 
The Bicknell probably breeds down to an elevation of 3,000 feet. 

Most of the foregoing species are usually found in locations sit- 
uated in a higher elevation and amid considerably different surround- 
ings than we have in the Otter creek valley. When I visit some of 
my favorite sphagnum bogs and densely wooded hill-sides, located high 
up in the Canadian zone, it seems strange that some of the interesting 
birds seen there are breeding in small patches of woods near my home. 

16 Joint Bulletin 2 

Several pairs of mourning warblers nest on Pine hill, about two 
miles from Rutland. I have spent considerable time trying to locate 
their nests, but did not succeed. This is in the locality where I saw 
a golden-winged warbler last season. ( See notes on golden-winged 
warbler in this issue of the bulletin i. 

Of the rarer water birds, we have kildeer plover. Bartramian sand- 
piper, and Virginia rails as breeders. Green herons and American bit- 
terns are common along Otter creek. 

In the spring of 1914. Mr. G. L. Kirk and I were passing by a 
pasture bordering on a swamp, just about dusk, and we were very 
much surprised to hear kildeer plovers' notes. The next day i May 24 > 
we again visited this place and found the birds with four young. This 
year there were two pairs in this same place, and on May 8, I found 
one nest with four eggs two-thirds incubated. This is the only time 
that I have ever found kildeer nesting in Vermont. 

On May 20, 1915. I was looking for red-winged blackbirds' nests 
in a swamp in a pasture. Small hillocks were formed in this swamp 
by cattle walking through the mud. and the blackbirds were nesting in 
the tall water grass and flags that grew on them. As the cattle paths 
were filled with water, only the tops of the hillocks were dry, and on 
one of these I found a Virginia rail's nest containing six fresh eggs. 
Later. < May 22 i I again visited it. and it contained eight eggs. Each 
time that I was at the swamp I tried to flush the bird, but failed, so 
well do they hide in the grass. I heard no call note or note of alarm. 
I mention this to show how easy it is to overlook this bird. for. if I 
had not found the nest by accident. I never would have known that 
the rails were nesting in this swamp. 

About a week later Mr. Kirk and Mr. L. F. Brehmer went to 
the swamp for the purpose of photographing the nest, and they found 
it had been destroyed. After going through the swamp several times, 
they at last succeeded in flushing one of the rails, but could not start 
it again. Several years ago there was a pair of these shy birds located 
in the tall grass surrounding a big water hole in the meadow. There 
are probably several pairs nesting near here each season. 

We have three to five pairs of Bartramian sandpipers that nest 
each season near the city. 

If any of the club members have ever found golden-winged warb- 
lers or siskins nesting in Vermont. I would appreciate it if they 
would advise me. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 17 


Leston A. Wheeler. 

Additional collections for 1914 are: Lycopodium clavatum var. 
megastaychyum. Calix humilis, Carex lurida var. gracilis, Sagittaria 
latijolia forma hastata. 

The following, new to the writer, were collected in 1915: Aster 
macrophyllus, Impatiens pallida. Chenopodium album var. viride. Ane- 
mone cylindrica. Scirpus sylvaticus var. Bissellii, S. polyphyllus, Ame- 
lanchier sanguinea, Ambrosia triflda. Delphinium Ajacis, Sedum ter- 
natum, Polygonum Careyi, Datura stramonium, Pycnanthemum inca- 
num. Desmodium Dillenii, D. rotundifolium, Polygala verticillata var. 
ambigua. P. Sanguinea, Lechea villosa, Cyperus esculentus. Phlox 
maculata, Potentilla pumila, Juncus militaris. 

New stations for Viola lanceolata and V, cucullata x. fimbriatula 
were discovered. 


Mrs. A. B. Morgan. 

June 21, 1915, a young chipping sparrow brought to me at 2 p. m. 
From that time till dusk fed it six times with cracker and milk, 10 
small grasshoppers, two flies, three millers. It weighed one-half 
ounce, tail is just starting. Cheeps very constantly, if hungry. Can fly 
blindly from the top of box to the floor. Seeks to get out of the box 
and evidently wants to perch on something, will sit contentedly on my 

June 22. — Wakes up the household at 4.30 by its insistent cries for 
food. I give it a generous feed of cracker and milk which silences it 
for an hour when the cries begin again. All through that day I feed 
it at intervals of half an hour with cracker and milk and small grass- 
hoppers. Unless the food is thrust well into its throat it cannot swallow. 

June 23. — Woke us even earlier, piping incessantly. Will take 
food oftener, and power of flight increases so that it is able to fly out 
of a box 10 inches high. Responds to my voice and footsteps, climbs 
on my red sweater and sits contentedly on my shoulder. I feed him a 
big grasshopper which distresses him and for the rest of that day 
refuses to eat any more grasshoppers, but relishes his bread and milk. 
Towards night stretches, preens his feathers, and looks around to see 

18 Joint Bulletin 2 

where he is. Shakes his cunning little tail which is growing fast. I 
find him asleep with his head under his wing, and as I put a light 
near, he wakes up and opens his mouth very wide, taking the food 
offered him. 

June 24. — Power of flight much stronger, feathers growing rapidly. 
Taken out into the garden, bird shows no recognition of objects or de- 
sire to get away. Cheeps gladly when I take it in my hand and carry 
it back to the house. 

June 25. — I notice that the hour of rising is now an hour later 
and that it calls for food less often. 

June 26. — Shows a growing fondness for attention, fluttering and 
squeaking playfully when I ruffle its feathers and talk to it. 

June 27. — Two small children come to call and are greatly enter- 
tained by carrying the bird about in their hands, he evidently enjoy- 
ing it. 

June 28. — Flies about at night peering and seeking a higher perch. 
Is now almost fully feathered and very fluffy and fat. I am continuing 
the same diet of cracker and milk and grasshoppers. 

June 29. — I put him in the wash dish with water, and upon dis- 
covering what there is to it bird flutters and bathes, until entirely 
soaked, looks as if he were drowned, but hops to the edge of the dish 
and by preening and fluttering is soon restored to a fluffy state. 

June 30. — Try letting him fly out of doors, which dazes him and 
makes him hide in the bushes. My voice reassures him so that he 
comes to my hand. Always flutters one wing and opens mouth when 
hungry. Will keep up an incessant cry when so. 

July 1. — Picks up food from the floor for the first time. 

July 2. — After a day of absence when he is cared for by some- 
one else, he shows extravagant delight upon my giving him his usual 

July 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. — Is taken out each day to the garden where 
he learns to get food from the ground, seems fond of ants, also picks 
up gravel. Will follow me about cheeping loudly and climb up on my 
skirt. W T hen taken in my warm hand and talked to will twitter softly. 

July 8. — Flies as far as the grape vine with seeming confidence. 
Remains there during the forenoon but calls each time he hears the 
door open. Still prefers to have me feed him rather than to pick up 

July 9 to 11. — Spends part of the time outside but comes readily to 
my «all. Is brought in each night. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 19 

July 12. — I feed him and put him out and of a sudden I see him 
mount far up in the crabapple tree. I call and he responds, but has no 
intention, evidently, of coming to me. I see him several times that day, 
but on the next he has joined several others of his kind about the place, 
and never more answers my language. I fancy that one bolder and 
tamer than the rest may be my pet, but have no way to identify him 
from this time. 


Nellie F. Flynn. 

A hill in Colchester where there is an abandoned quarry once 
worked by the Mallett's Bay Marble Company has for a long time at- 
tracted me and I had the feeling that there was something new for me 

At last one afternoon last summer my chance came to explore it. 
It is a rocky hill composed, I think, of limestone wholly or in part; 
just such a place as the lime loving ferns prefer. There were Poly- 
podiums of course, as there always is in rocky woods in this section, 
but I was greatly surprised at the quantities of the maidenhair spleen- 
wort, Asplenium Trichomanes, and the rue spleenwort, Asple?iium Ruta- 
muraria. I have seen them growing in favored locations before in what 
I thought abundance, but nothing like this. 

Not so abundant was the purple cliff brake, Pellaea atropurpurea, 
but it was very luxuriant, some fronds measuring 15 inches in length. 
Only two or three plants of the ebony spleenwort, Asplenium ebeneum, 
were seen. 

The crowning pleasure of the afternoon was reserved for the last 
and that was the finding of 13 plants of pine drops, Pterospora andro- 
medea. I had never seen it growing before and was therefore the more 
delighted to find so many plants of it. Found three in one place and 
a little later, just as we were leaving the woods, I found the other 10. 
Think I should have found more if I had had more time. 

2o Joint Bulletin 2 


H. F. Perkins. 

The course was offered under the joint auspices of the university 
and the National Association of Audubon societies. Among the stu- 
dents were high school teachers, including two principals. All had 
some previous knowledge of birds and were able to identify many 
of the more common species. The work was as largely field observa- 
tion as possible. A careful record of species positively identified by 
two or more members of the class in the field shows 68 names. The 
identification of a large number of species was merely preliminary, the 
general work of the class being the study of conditions, habits, distri- 
bution and nesting. Each member of the class selected a principal 
genus upon which most of the work was done. 

Excursions were made to a number of points at a distance from 
Burlington, including Fort Frederick, Ausable Chasm and Mount Mans- 

One species which was unusually abundant during the season of 
1915 was the myrtle warbler. This was found in considerable num- 
bers at most of the localities visited and was especially noted on the 
summit of Mount Mansfield. Among the somewhat unusual opportuni- 
ties for study of particular species may be mentioned that of making 
repeated observations upon the Maryland yellow throat, cedar waxwing, 
scarlet tanager and pine siskin. 

A large number of vesper sparrows and of meadow larks, especially 
their young just out of the nest, offered an excellent chance for care- 
ful observations upon these two interesting forms. 

The nests and eggs of nearly a dozen species were observed at 
various times by the class. 

In addition to the class work the individual students kept records 
of their own findings and reported as many as 85 species of birds ob- 
served during the six weeks of the course. 

Museum specimens of sparrows and warblers to the number of 52 
were studied without any labels being present to aid in identifying. 
The class became proficient in this work to such an extent that they 
w r ere able to identify any one of the 52 at sight. 

One of the interesting experiences of the class was a visit to 
the Four Brothers Islands where the herring gull nests in the spring 
in large numbers. Although the nesting season was over, the empty 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 21 

nests and the remains of food and eggs were examined carefully and 
many birds, including various sizes of young, were close enough to 
be studied. 


Inez Addie Howe. 

During the past season 574 species of flowering plants, 46 of ferns 
and fern allies and 22 of mosses and lichens were shown on the 
flower tables at the Fairbanks museum. Only 48 of these were col- 
lected beyond our five-mile radius and many interesting additions were 
made to the local flora of St. Johnsbury. 

Most notable among the additions are the following species: Ribes 
trieste var. albinervium, on clayey banks; Hierochloe odorata. growing 
plentifully by roadside; Veronica scutellata. grows abundantly in a 
swamp at St. Johnsbury Center and on the shores of Stile's Pond; 
Sa?iicula trifoliata and Circaea intermedia were found in moist, cool 
woods; Lappula echinata sprang up in a newly seeded field. 

During the summer meetings of the clubs we found Linaria minor 
at Danville and in October I found another station along the railway 
at St. Johnsbury. I have a second station for the state for Hieracium 
pratense on the golf links above our village. Campanula aparinoides 
was found in a swamp near the village, and Euphorbia maculata I 
found in several waste places. 

Along one of our country roads I found a large area of Aster eri- 
coides growing. This species is so unusual in this vicinity that I sent 
specimens to Dr. Brainerd for verification. I shall be glad to furnish 
exchange specimens of this species to club members desiring them. 

Desmodium nudiflorum was found growing plentifully on the 
Passumpsic road two or three miles south of St. Johnsbury. A new sta- 
tion for Epilobium densum was found, and Pycnanthernum flexuosum 
was sent to me from St. Johnsbury Center for identification. 

My co-worker at the museum and fellow member of the clubs, 
Miss Mabel Shields, has also made valuable additions to our town flora 
during the past season. Her finds are as follows: Artemisia vulgaris. 
on a waste pile; Verbascum blatteria var. albiflorum, in a hill pasture 
a little north of town; Juniperus communis var. depressa. in nearly 
the same locality; Pycnanthemum virginianum. in sandy soil and Alisma 
plantago-aquatica, in wet soil where there was formerly a pond. 

22 Joint Bulletin 2 

Notwithstanding the fact that it is not listed in the new Flora of 

inont, we feel very sure that we have several stations for Monarda 
fistulosa. During August some fine specimens of Monarda didyma were 
brought to us from Danville. 

Anything like a complete list of the sedges and grasses of St. 
Johnsbury has never been made, but we are doing a little more with 
them each year. However, our finds along these lines are not yet rare 
enough to be of more than local interest. 

Among the plants listed as "rare" or "occasional" in the new Flora, 
wild thyme has become widely established on a hillside near town and 
grass-of-Parnassus is as common as w r hite daisies in wet grass lands. 

Ambrosia trifida is reported from Danville by Mrs. Marion Fair- 
banks Adams and Potentilla frvticosa from Sutton by A. R. Curtis. 


Mrs. A. B. Morgan. 

Some of the members of the Hartland Nature Club took up the 
study of the song sparrow in 1915, following the outline suggested by 
Prof. H. F. Perkins of Burlington. Definite work was assigned to a few 
members and a general lookout maintained by all. Data were gleaned 
from various standard works on birds and careful observations were 
made as to dates of arrival, time when singing was at its height, time 
and manner of nest building, length of time young are in nest, treat- 
ment of young by parents and time when birds depart in the fall. The 
results are here given: 

March 28, 1915, first song sparrow of the year, one individual. 

March 31, one individual. 

April 1, one individual at "The Highlands." 

April 5, song sparrows singing, several individuals. 

April 7, song sparrows singing beautifully in the garden at "Sky 

From April 7, song sparrows are common. I find them in their 
usual haunts at "The Highlands" and recognize them by their indi- 
vidual songs. The male comes out to sing on the grape vine often, the 
female seems much shyer and is seldom seen. 

.May 24, the male stops singing, a sure indication that the young 
birds are hatched and he is busy in supplying food for them. 

Vebmont Botanical and Bird Club 23 

June 7, discover song sparrow, evidently female, bathing near 
spring. After this date frequently see her taking her bath about noon. 
The male is still silent (discover nest in hedge with five eggs). 

June 10, the male returns to perch in grape arbor and sings tri- 
umphantly. The young are evidently past the most voracious period 
and his cares are lessening. 

June 11, am awakened by song of the male at 4 a. m., very beauti- 
ful and happy. 

June 13, discover young sparrows in grape vine, where I had sus- 
pected the nest was. 

June 16, see four young sparrows with parent birds who were 
feeding them at intervals of from three to five minutes. Young birds 
utter peculiar "cheep, cheep," asking continually for something to eat. 

June 17, parent song sparrows (each) take two little ones about 
garden to teach them how to get food. Implicit trust on the part of little 
birds, as they follow old birds and do as old ones do. Occasionally 
the old birds flew away bringing small moths and other insects which 
caused great twitterings and talking. The male, overcome with joy, 
would sometimes fly to his perch and burst forth in ecstatic song. The 
young birds were very chubby and with shorter tails than those of 
the parent birds. 

June 18 (and for nearly a week), the lessons or meetings went on, 
and during that time the young birds were taken to the pool by the 
spring for bathing lessons, or, at least, I find them bathing there with 
their parents. Shortly after this I discover the old birds are carrying 
building material into grape vine, but on account of its density and the 
inaccessible cliff that it covers, I refrain from finding the exact spot 
of the nest. 

The same process as above described is repeated, male sings inces- 
santly for a short time and then the period of silence. 

June 29, I again see them rustling about for food and hear the 
"chink, chinking" when I go near the grape vine. 

July 11, take specimen that is full grown. (Second brood). 

Aug. 10, many birds found flocking together near "The Highlands," 
among them many song sparrows. 

August 19, get specimen of young song sparrow — length S^ inches, 
wing 2% inches, tail 1 inch. Second brood of young song sparrows 
feeding in my garden. 

September 12, young sparrows learning to sing, very retiring, keep 
to the shrubbery, and strange little squeaky notes arise, which I find 
positively are the young birds. 

24 Joint Bulletin 2 

October 1, my pet sparrow mounts to his perch and bursts into 
song, the last time I hear him this season. 

October 21, song sparrow in lane — latest date. 

Fall Records fob 1914. 

September 15, young song sparrows in "The Bottomless Basin" just 
able to fly. This is the latest record for young birds that I have. (Prob- 
ably third brood). 

September 16, song sparrows about the premises become shy, hiding 
in the stone and wood piles. Are quiet and attract almost no attention. 

September 22, song sparrow running in the garden paths and eating 
alyssum and mignonette seeds. 

September 23 to 26, saw from 4 to 10 sparrows daily about the 
premises and in the lane. 

October 10, beautiful, warm day, song sparrow in full song, sur- 
passingly sweet. 

October 20, my pet sparrow still living in woodpile. 

October 24, latest date for the sparrow this year. Often it is seen 
late in November. 


Description of nest found June 7, 1915: In bush one foot from 
ground, made of grass stems, dry leaves, lined with fine grass and a few 
fine roots. Depth of nest about 4 inches on outside, 2*4 inches on inside. 
Five eggs, light bluish green, wreathed with rufous brown, pretty well 
spotted all over. 

Time of Nest Building. 

From observations on my garden birds I draw the following gen- 
eral conclusions: Nest building about one week, probably varies a day 
or two from that. I think the female does the greater share of the 
work, as surely the male spends much time singing. 

Incubation about two weeks. 

Young birds in nest about two weeks, also. 

Parents accompanying young about one week. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 25 


George L. Kirk. 

Comparison of notes during the winter meeting of the clubs at Rut- 
land developed the fact that the prairie horned lark {Otocoris alpes- 
tris praticola) probably does not breed about Burlington, and is irreg- 
ular as a summer resident in other parts of the state where the coun- 
try is flat. This was a great surprise to the writer as this lark 
nests sparingly, but regularly, in the vicinity of Rutland, and 
there are records for the eastern and southern parts of the state. Posi- 
tive records of the breeding of this bird in Vermont should be sent to 
the editor of the bird department of the bulletin, and it will be inter- 
esting at some future time to publish a paper on its distribution in 
the state. 

The bird normally reaches Rutland about February 25, always be- 
ing the first migrant to return. It may, occasionally, remain all winter 
when there is little snow. Two secured on February 6, 1916 from a 
flock which were supposed to be the horned lark (0. alpestris) turned 
out to be the sub-species. Certainly the horned lark is not affected 
by the cold, as the writer has frequently heard its weak, but inter- 
esting song coming from a clot of frozen earth, or fence-post, at the 
close of a late February, or early March day, when the thermometer 
registered zero. 


Adelaide B. Denton. 

That our feathered friends might be especially remembered at Christ- 
mas time, when all the city was celebrating with gaily decorated trees, 
we fashioned a Christmas tree for them out of a bare hydrangea bush 
which grew beside the front window. We tied on bits of suet, cran- 
berries in rosy strings, chains of sunflower seeds and Brazil nuts. The 
nuts seemed to be the favorite, the greatest delicacy of all. Later 
we fastened to the tree a wire basket filled with cracked acorns, hickory 
nuts, bread crumbs and suet. 

How quickly the birds found it! The chickadee came first; then 
the nuthatch and two downy woodpeckers. The three species are often 
seen feeding at the same time. 

2(i Joint Bulletin 2 

We have been much interested, too, in watching the nuthatches. 
After their appetites were satisfied, they would fly away with big pieces 
of suet and nuts in their bills. How deftly they would secrete the food 
under the bark of neighboring maples and elms, but, do their best, 
the hidden food would show and after a while the trunks looked spotted 
as result of the birds' efforts. Presently a grey squirrel found the stores 
and had a fine meal. 


The Fairbanks museum at St. Johnsbury has the following bird 
migration list for 1915: 

Resident species: Brown creeper, chickadee, goldfinch, ruffed 
grouse, blue jay, white-breasted nuthatch, red-breasted nuthatch, barred 
owl, screech owl, northern shrike, English sparrow, downy woodpecker, 
hairy woodpecker, pileated woodpecker. 

Snow bunting Jan. 1-Mar. 8; crow, Jan. 7-Oct. 26; white-winged 
crossbill, Jan. 21-Mar. 30. 

Redpoll, Feb. 3-Feb. 17; pine grosbeak, Feb. 7 and May 2; pine sis- 
kin, Feb. 8-Nov. 2; cedar waxwing, Feb. 10-Oct. 20; horned lark, Feb. 
24 . 

Purple finch, Mar. 7-Oct. 20; junco, Mar. 8-Nov. 9; saw-whet owl, 
Mar. 9 and Mar. 19; bluebird, Mar. 12-Oct. 26; tree sparrow, Mar. 14- 
Apr. 16 and Oct. 10-29; robin, Mar. 18-Oct. 26; bronzed grackle, Mar. 
28-Oct. 18. 

Song sparrow, Apr. 1-Oct. 28; red-shouldered hawk, Apr. 1-Oct. 22 
red-winged blackbird, Apr. 5-Oct. 17; broad-winged hawk, Apr. 8-Nov. 1 
chipping sparrow, Apr. 9-Oct. 31; prairie horned lark, Apr. 9 

vesper sparrow, Apr. 10-Oct. 15; Savannah sparrow, Apr. 10-Sept. 7 
flicker, Apr. 10-Oct. 28; ruby-crowned kinglet, Apr. 10-21 and Nov. 2 
phoebe, Apr. 10-Sept. 30; sapsucker, Apr, 10-Oct. 8; Canada goose, Apr 
10 and 21, Nov. 6 and Dec. 6; fox sparrow, April 11 and 18, Oct. 18 
cowbird, Apr. 12-Sept. 24; hermit thrush, Apr. 14-Oct. 15; meadow lark 
Apr. 17- July 25; marsh hawk, Apr. 19; golden-crowned kinglet, Apr 
20-25; osprey, April 21; myrtle warbler, Apr. 21-Oct. 26; white-throated 
sparrow, Apr. 21-Oct. 26; kingfisher, Apr. 22-Oct. 28; field sparrow, Apr. 
22-Aug. 5; great-crested flycatcher, Apr. 25-Aug. 23; grasshopper spar- 
row, Apr. 24 ; white-eyed vireo, Apr. 25; ovenbird, Apr. 26-Aug. 

31; blue-headed vireo, Apr. 27-Sept. 12; kingbird, Apr. 27-Aug. 23; 
bank swallow, Apr. 27-Aug. 5; pine warbler, Apr. 29-Aug. 28. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 27 

Rose-breasted grosbeak, May 2-0ct. 8; Cooper's hawk, May 2-Sept. 
30; sharp-shinned hawk, May 2-Sept. 5; red-tailed hawk, May 4-Oct. 
20; chimney swift, May 6-Aug. 25; black and white warbler, May 7- 
Sept. 5; Wilson's thrush, May 7-Oct. 1; yellow warbler, May 7-Sept. 
3; redstart, May 7-Aug. 31; warbling vireo, May 8-Sept. 25; purple mar- 
tin, May 9; least flycatcher, May 9-Aug. 1; oriole, May 9-Aug. 30; eave 

swallow, May 9-Sept. 3; tree swallow, May 9 ; barn swallow, 

May 9-Sept. 3; yellow-throated vireo, May 9-Sept. 16; blackburnian 

warbler, May 9 ; house wren, May 9-Oct. 2; black-throated green 

warbler, May 9 ; black-throated blue warbler, May 9 ■ ; 

bay-breasted warbler, May 10; bobolink, May 10-Aug. 16; winter wren, 
May 10-Nov. 9; spotted sandpiper, May 10-Sept. 7; chestnut-sided warb- 
ler, May 10-Aug. 18; scarlet tanager, May 11-Aug. 31; white-crowned 
sparrow, May 12-23 and Oct. 26; wood pewee, May 13-Sept. 20; catbird, 
May 13-Aug. 16; Nashville warbler, May 13 ; Maryland yellow- 
throat, May 13-Oct. 6; solitary sandpiper, May 14 ; American 

goshawk, May 17; ruby-throated hummingbird, May 19-Aug. 30; red- 
eyed vireo, May 21-Oct. 1; Canadian warbler, May 21-July 30; least sand- 
piper, May 21; magnolia warbler, May 22 ; olive-sided flycatcher, 

May 23-Sept. 5; Bicknell's thrush, May 23; red-headed woodpecker, May 
23; Wilson's warbler, May 23; Tennessee warbler, May 23; indigo bunt- 
ing, May 23; nighthawk, May 24-Aug. 25; black-billed cuckoo, May 25 
; rusty blackbird, May 25 ; parula warbler, May 27 

blackpoll warbler, May 27 ; wood thrush, May 29 and July 8 

Acadian flycatcher, May 29; Bohemian waxwing, May 30-Sept. 29 
swamp sparrow, May 30; alder flycatcher, May 30-July 30. 

Chewink, June 2-Sept. 24; sparrow hawk, June 2 ; browm 

thrasher, June 3 ; upland plover, June 3-Sept. 25; mourning 

warbler, June 4 ; whip-poor-will, June 4 ; yellow-billed 

cuckoo, June 6 ; Cape May warbler, June 9; Connecticut warb- 
ler, June 10-July 15; American woodcock, June 30 . 

Great blue heron, Aug. 16-Oct. 10; loggerhead shrike, Aug. 20-Oct. 
22; black duck, Aug. 28. 

American crossbill, Dec. 28. 

Total, 130 species. 

Miss Inez A. Howe of St. Johnsbury also sends in an individual list 
containing 108 species, including a number of the unusual ones recorded 
in the museum list. Of great interest is Miss Howe's observations on 
the Connecticut warbler which nested in deep cool woods near St. 
Johnsbury, being seen about from June 10 until July 12. 

28 Joixt Bulletin 2 


George L. Kirk. 

The four footed wild creatures of Vermont seem to have been 
neglected by nature writers. Much good work has been done by the 
botanists and the ornithologists but the mammals have been almost 
overlooked. And this is strange, taking into consideration the excellent 
state and local floras which have been published and the very credit- 
able birds lists which have appeared in print to show that the state 
has a number of amateur naturalists who are close observers and en- 
thusiastic to the last degree. In 1842 the venerable Zadock Thompson 
devoted a chapter of his famous Vermont history to mammals and it 
was remarkably complete, considering how few and far between scien- 
tific men were in that early day and the disadvantages under which 
he had to work. There have been many changes in nomenclature since 
Thompson's day and much biological work has been done in New 
England so that his list cannot at present be turned to as a catalogue 
of the four-footed animals of Vermont. 

Dr. G. H. Perkins of Burlington in his "Report of the State Geol- 
ogist, 1909-1910," gives an account of the mammals to be found in the 
state cabinet at Montpelier, with interesting notes as to the abundance 
or rarity of most of the species, and Dr. Glover M. Allen of Boston in 
his "Fauna of New England, No. 3," Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory occasional papers, makes reference to the species found in Ver- 
mont in his general check list of all of the New England states. These 
papers, however, are based on such material as had found its way into 
museum collections and by no means give an adequate idea of the 
fauna of Vermont. 

Realizing that there was abundant opportunity for systematic col- 
lecting Mr. Duane E. Kent of Rutland and the writer began in 1912 
to make a survey of the mammalia of the state. As this has been done 
merely as a pastime at leisure moments, in addition to daily duties 
which demanded attention 51 weeks in the year, the time devoted to 
it has necessarily been limited and the pleasant task is by no means 
completed. Taking the mammal lists of adjoining states as a basis for 
comparison, nearly all of the species which could be expected in the 
Green Mountain state have been secured and it seems proper to publish 
the list at this time. 

The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. E. W. Nelson of the United 
States biological survey and to Dr. Glover M. Allen for identification 
of material and to Mr. Kent, Mr. D. L. Dutton of Brandon, Mr. D. R. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club \1^J 

Mahaffy of Proctor, Mr. W. E. Balch of Lunenburg and others for 
assistance in collecting specimens. 

Cabinet skins or heads of the following are in the state museum 
or the private collections of Mr. Kent and the writer with the ex- 
ception of one or two cases where the writer has examined hunters' 

Odocoileus virginianus borealis (Miller) G. M. Allen. Northern Vir- 
ginia deer. Common in every county, even in agricultural districts. 
The deer were nearly exterminated a half century ago and the animals 
now found are largely the result of the liberation of two herds near 
Rutland about 1878. 

Paralces americanus (Clinton) Allen. Moose. This animal on 
rare occasions strays into Vermont. There is an official report in the 
office of the state game commissioner of the killing of one in Wenlock, 
Essex county, in 1900 and deer hunters have reported sighting two or 
three others since that time in the northeast corner of the state. 

Sciurus carolinensis leucotis (Gapper) Allen. Northern gray 
squirrel. Abundant in hardwood forests throughout the state. Rare 
above 2,000 feet elevation. 

Sciurus hudsonicus loquax Bangs. Southern red squirrel. All the 
red squirrels collected in Vermont prove to be of this form. Former 
reports have credited the state with S. h. gymnicus, in addition to the 
southern form, but collections from Lunenburg in northern Essex coun- 
ty and from the Canadian zone on the higher slopes of Mount Killington 
are identical with red squirrels from the southern parts of the state 
and the Champlain valley. 

Tamias striatus lysteri (Richardson) Merriam. Lyster's chip- 
munk. Common throughout the state and ranging to the summits of 
the highest mountains. Most abundant in deciduous forests. 

Marmota monax rufescens Howell. Rufescent woodchuck. In his 
monograph of the marmots (North American Fauna, No. 37, U. S. Dept. 
Agriculture). Mr. A. H. Howell cites Marmota monax preblorum 
Howell from Rutland but all of a series of skins and skulls from points 
between Wallingford and Lunenburg, sent him later, are placed under 
the form rufescens. This includes a specimen taken in the Canadian 
zone at East Wallingford. 

Marmota monax canadensis (Erxleben). Canadian woodchuck. Mr. 
Howell places a skin without skull from Mount Mansfield under this 
species provisionally. 

30 Joint Bulletin 2 

Sdurppterus sabrinus nvocrotis Mearns. Canadian flying squirrel. 
Common in the Canadian zone and occasional in cold swamps else- 
where. Difficult to collect because of its nocturnal habits. 

Scittropterua volant (Linne) Jorgan. Southern flying squirrel. This 
is the flying squirrel most frequently met with in Vermont. It is con- 1 
fined to open woodlands at the lower altitudes, ranging to the Canada 
line in the Champlain valley. Records are incomplete as to its dis- 
tribution north of Woodstock in eastern Vermont. 

Castor canadensis Kuhl. Beaver. Practically extinct since before 

Mus musculus Linne. House mouse. Introduced. Abundant in 
buildings in settled districts. Occasionally in fields. One was taken 
on a cold mountain brook in Sherburne two miles from a house. 

Mus norvegicus Erxleben. Norway rat. Introduced. Common 
about buildings in settled districts. 

.J/i/6' rattus Linne. Black rat. Introduced. About buildings but 
becoming rare. 

Peromyscus mani euiatus gracilis (Le Conte). Canadian white-footed 
mouse. Common throughout the state above 1,000 feet altitude. 
Prefers cool moist woods but frequents buildings in country districts. 

Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fischer) Miller. White-footed 
mouse. Deermouse. The common white-footed mouse of the lowlands 
and extending north in Champlain valley to Canadian border. North 
to St. Johnsbury on east side of state. 

Evotomys gapperi ochraceus Miller. Eastern red-backed mouse. 
Common in moist woods of Canadian zone and occasionally found in 
cold swamps at lower altitudes. 

Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord) Rhoads. Meadow mouse. Abundant 
in moist grassy and brushy lands at the lower altitudes. Gardner's 
Island in Lake Champlain at Ferrisburgh, a dry rocky tract, is over- 
run with this mouse to the exclusion of all others. A large male was 
trapped at the hotel near the summit of Mount Killington, where it was 
probably introduced. 

Fiber zibethieus (Linne) Cuvier. Muskrat. Common along lakes 
and streams and in marshes. 

synaptomys fatuus Bangs. Northern lemming mouse. This elusive 
species is put in the Vermont list as result of the trapping of two speci- 
mens; one under matted spruces at the summit of Mount Killington 
by Mr. Kent and the writer and the other in a sphagnum swamp (Scan- 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clvb 31 

Ion's) in the town of Leicester by Mr. D. L. Dutton and the writer. 
These are in the collections of Messrs. Kent and Kirk. 

Zapus hudsonius (Zimmerman) Coues. Hudson bay jumping 
mouse. Common in grassy meadow lands and marshy tracts up to 2,- 
000 feet altitude. 

Xapaeozapus insignis (Miller) Miller. Woodland jumping mouse. 
Abundant about cool mountain streams and moist places in the Cana- 
dian zone. 

Erethizon dorsatum (Linne) F. Cuvier. Porcupine. Common in 
mountainous regions. 

Lepus americanus virginianus (Harlan) Allen. Eastern varying 
hare. Widely distributed in mountain woods and in swamps at lower 
altitudes. Much less common than formerly in many sections where 
the cottontail has become common. 

Sylvilagus transitionalis Bangs. New England cottontail. This 
species has spread northward rapidly in the last 20 years. On the 
west side of the state it is abundant to .the Canadian border up to 2,- 
000 feet altitude. On the east side it extends at least as far north as 
Montpelier. It is not reported from Essex county. 

Phoca vitulina Linne. Harbor seal. This maritime species oc- 
casionally finds its way into Lake Champlain through the St. Law- 
rence river. Dr. Perkins cites three instances, "Burlington, 1810 and 
1846; Otter creek, Weybridge, 1876." There is one in the state collection 
at Montpelier and one in the University of Vermont museum at Bur- 

Felis cougar Kerr. Panther. Probably extinct. "Specimen killed at 
Barnard in 1881," Dr. Perkins. 

Lynx canadensis (Kerr) Rafinesque. Canada lynx. Formerly taken 
occasionally but the writer can find no reliable record of the killing of 
one for 20 years. 

Lynx ruff us (Guldenstadt) Rafinesque. Bay lynx. Occasional in 
heavily wooded districts. 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus borealis Merriam. Northern gray fox. 
This species reaches its northern limit in central Vermont, being taken 
at rare intervals in the transition zone as far north as Whiting on 
the west side and Woodstock on the east side of the state. 

Vulpes fulvus (Desmarest) De Kay. Red fox. Common through- 
out the state, the black and cross phases being occasionally seen. 

Lutra canadensis (Shreber) Sabine. Otter. Along mountain 
streams, becoming rare. East Wallingford, 1914; Weston, 1915. 

32 Joint Bulletin 2 

Mephitis putida (G. Cuvier) Allen. Eastern skunk. Abundant in 
pastures and open woodlands throughout the state. 

Putorius vison (Shreber) Gapper. Mink. Formerly common 
along streams and lakes everywhere but becoming infrequent because 
of persistent trapping for its fur. ' 

Putorius cicognani (Bonaparte) Richardson. Little brown weasel. 
The common weasel in Vermont. Found at all altitudes. 

Putorius noveboraeensis Emmons. New York weasel. Much less 
frequent than the preceding and more confined to the transition zone. 
Apparently absent from some sections, as about Rutland. 

Mu stela americana Turton. Pine marten. Frequents highest spruce 
covered mountain ridges. Nearly extinct. The writer saw a specimen 
killed in Chittenden in 1900. A deer hunter secured one in Glasten- 
bury in November, 1915. 

Mustela pennanti Erxleben. Fisher. Another fur bearer which is 
rapidly being exterminated and is confined to the wildest mountain 
districts. The writer has seen the tracks of one in Sherburne and an- 
other in Mendon within three years. 

Procyon lotor (Linne) Storr. Raccoon. Common in deciduous 
woods about lakes and along streams. 

Ursus americanus Pallas. Black bear. Occasional in the mountains 
throughout the state. 

Sorex personatus I. Geoffroy. Masked shrew. Common in swamps 
and moist woods from the level of Lake Champlain to the highest 
mountain summits. 

Sorex fumeus Miller. Smoky shrew. Occasional in cool mossy woods 
of the Canadian zone and rarely in sphagnum bogs; "Scanlon's," Leices- 
ter; "Cedar," Rutland. 

Sorex hoyi Baird. Hoy's shrew. Only one Vermont record. The 
specimen was taken at Burlington by Zadock Thompson and is in the 
state collection. 

Sorex dispar Batchelder. Two specimens of this rare shrew have 
been taken in Vermont. One was trapped by Dr. Glover M. Allen at 
Bridgewater and the other by Mr. Kent and the writer near the summit 
of Mount Killington, the first collection being made in May, 1913. 

Sorex albibarbis (Cope) Merriam. White-lipped shrew. Local along 
mountain streams and about ponds, mainly in the Canadian zone; Sher- 
burne, Mendon, Goshen, Wallingford, Rutland. Mr. Kent made a large 
collection of this shrew at Spectacle pond in East Wallingford. 

Blarina brevicauda talpoides (Gapper) Bangs. Short-tailed shrew. 
Abundant in woods and fields, preferring moist situations. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 33 


Parascalops breweri (Bachman) True. Brewer's mole. In fields 
and open woods above 1,000 feet altitude. Frequent drier situations 
than the star-nosed mole. 

Condylura cristata (Linne) Desmarest. Star-nosed mole. Abundant 
in moist meadows and marshes and extending well up into the moun- 
tains in suitable places. Mr. Kent took both species of moles in the 
same tunnels at Spectacle pond. 

Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte) Miller. Little brown bat. Abundant 
throughout the state. 

Myotis winnemana Nelson. Least brown bat. This species was 
described by Mr. E. W. Nelson (Proc. Biological Soc, Wash.; vol. xxvi, 
pp. 183-4) as the result of the collection of a few specimens by Mr. 
D. R. Mahaffy of Proctor in Nickwacket cave, Chittenden, in January, 
1913. It had previously been confused with the little brown bat. Sub- 
sequent examinations of collections showed two from Maryland in the 
biological survey collection and several from New England in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. 

Myotis subulatus (Say) Miller. Much more local than the preced- 
ing. Mr. Kent and the writer have taken but two specimens, both in 

Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte) Peters. Silver-haired bat. 
One of the most common bats of the state. 

Pipistrellus subflavus obscurus Miller. Northern pipistrell. Col- 
lected so far in Vermont only from caves in Chittenden, where it was 
first discovered in 1915 by Mr. D. R. Mahaffy of Proctor. It reaches its 
northern limit in New England. 

Vespertilio fuscus Beauvois. Large brown bat. Common in the tran- 
sition zone, preferring low moist woods. Frequently seen in villages. 

Lasiurus borealis (Muller) Miller. Red bat. Occasional in the 
transition zone. Rare in Canadian zone. 

Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois) H. Allen. Hoary bat. This migra- 
tory species should be found breeding in the Canadian zone throughout 
the state but, although Mr. Kent and the writer have frequently 
watched, gun in hand, in favorable situations a good many evenings, 
they have failed to see a specimen. It may be expected along water 
courses during migrations. The only Vermont specimen of which there 
is a record is one taken at Colchester soon after 1840 and presented the 
state collection by Zadock Thompson. 

34 Joint Bl llktix 2 

Species New to Vermont. 

Species included in the above list which have not been accredited 
to the state in any previous publications are: Synaptomys fatuus, 
Urocyon cinercoargenteas borealis, Sorex fumeus, Sorex albibarbis. 
sorex dispar. My Otis ivinnemana, Pipistrellus subflaviis obscurus. 

Species to Be Lookkd For. 

Microtias ihrotorrhinus (Miller) Bangs, the rock vole, has been 
taken in the White, Adirondack and Catskill mountains among moist 
rocks at high altitudes and is to be expected in Vermont on the high- 
est peaks of the Green Mountains. The little known long-tailed weasel, 
Putorius occisor Bangs, may occur in northern Essex county. 


A large specimen of Botrychium obliqinnn var. ternatum was col- 
lected by Leston A. Wheeler at Newfane, having not only the frond of 
the season but that of the previous year, in good condition. 

A beautiful crisped form of Aspidium spinulosum var. intermedin /m 
was collected near Williamsville station by Mr. Wheeler. 

A single plant of Elymus canadensis var. glaucifolius. which was 
brought to Mr. Wheeler's attention by F. T. Randall, measured seven 
feet and 10 inches in height and had a spike eight and a half inches 

Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn of Burlington collected Silene dichotoma on 
the beach at Starr farm, Burlington, near newly seeded land, in 1915. 

Miss Ella Munsell sends the following interesting list of plants 
found in blossom at Wells River between October 1 and October 31, 
1915: Red raspberry, twin flower, herb Robert, yarrow, white daisy, 
erigeron, strawberry, bluets, goldenrod, white and purple violets, hare- 
bells, false Solomon's seal, cinquefoil, mullein. 

Dana S. Carpenter reports Carex alopecoidea Tuckerman and Carer 
cephaloidea Dewey from Middletown Springs. These carices are un- 
common in Vermont. 

The last week in April, 1915, there were several days of midsummer 
heat at Rutland and the effect on vegetation was very marked, several 

Vermont Botanical axd Bird Club 35 

plants blossoming- a full month ahead of time. Trillium grandiflorum, 
(Michx.) Salisb. usually in its prime May 20 to Memorial day, was in 
full bloom April 29 but, instead of topping plants 12 to 16 inches high, 
the big flowers were, on the average, only four inches above the leafy 
carpet of the forest. Viburnum alnifolium Marsh, another plant to put 
forth flowers in late May, bore full blown cymes on well leaved 
branches instead of on nearly naked ones as is usual. Most of the de- 
ciduous trees were well leaved on the date mentioned. 

Mrs. Emily Hitchcock Terry of Northampton, Mass., writes that 
Dr. B. L. Robinson has identified one of several ferns collected by 
her at Dorset as Asplenium simulatum Davenp. This is a considerable 
extension of the range in Vermont of this rare fern. 

The moss Tetraplodon broides (Zoega) Lindb. has been collected 
on Mount Killington by Mr. Kirk. It has heretofore been reported 
in Vermont only from Mount Mansfield, A. J. Grout. 


The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) was located 
in the bushes near Muddy Pond, on Pine Hill, Rutland, by Mr. D. E. 
Kent, May 30, 1915. Mr. Kent reports that the probabilities are that 
this bird has nested in this vicinity for a number of years. This is the 
only record we have at hand for this bird for Vermont. 

A large flight of Tennessee warblers are reported for Rutland in 
1915. The first birds appeared May 23. They were more abundant about 
the residential streets than in the country outside the city. They were 
frequent again in 1916. 

A male bay-breasted warbler was observed by Mr. Charles Sheldon 
of New York, Mr. G. H. Ross and Mr. George L. Kirk of Rutland at 
Barnard, June 9, 1915. The bird was a male in full breeding plumage. 
The location was spruce woods at an elevation of 2,500 feet. No 
nest was found, and the bird may have been a delayed migrant as no 
records of nesting for this bird are found in Vermont. The late date 
would indicate breeding, however. 

Mr. G. L. Kirk has the skin of a fine specimen of a male hawk 
owl taken at Derby, Nov. 11, 1915, a rough-winged swallow taken at 
Rutland May 20, 1916 and a Philadelphia vireo taken at Rutland May 
24, 1916. 

36 Joint Bulletin 2 

A great horned owl was found incubating her eggs, by Mr. G. H. 
Ross, Mr. G. L. Kirk and Mr. D. E. Kent at Rutland, March 12, 1916. 
The nest was located in a pine tree, 45 feet from the ground. The 
ground was covered with snow, and the snow was piled several inches 
about the nest. The thermometer registered 10 degrees below zero. The • 
nest contained two eggs. 

A black-billed cuckoo was found on a nest containing three eggs 
as late as August 29, by Mr. E. J. Briggs of Rutland. This is a record 
for late breeding, as this bird usually leaves this locality early in 

Evening grosbeaks are reported for the past winter from a number 
of places in Vermont. They remained several weeks in the vicinity of 
Rutland. They were also observed in Middlebury, Burlington, London- 
derry, Clarendon, Hartland, Brandon and St. Jolinsbury. The last bird 
was seen at Rutland, May 17. 

The nest of an American goldeneye was found at Averill, in 1915, 
by Mr. Owen Durfee of Fall River, and Mr. F. H. Kennard of Boston, 
Mass. This is probably the first breeding record for this bird in the 

Miss Mary E. Jennison reports the presence of bay-breasted warb- 
lers at St. Albans, May 29-31, together with myrtle warblers and olive- 
backed thrushes. The same observer reports an unusual number of 
scarlet tanagers for that locality during the past year. She also found 
young juncos and white-throated sparrows in a woodlot on Aldis Hill as 
late as August 15, an indication that these birds breed in that locality. 
The same report includes a notice of the evening grosbeaks which 
stayed two or three days about the middle of March, the flock being 
a small one, containing three females and one male. 

Winter birds are reported much more numerous about St. Johns- 
bury this year than in previous years. White-winged crossbills, Ameri- 
can crossbills, redpolls, and snow buntings, having been observed in 
various parts of the town. Miss Inez A. Howe reports that chickadees, 
a pair of red-breasted nuthatches, a white-breasted nuthatch, and a 
pair of blue jays came daily to the food shelves. Mrs. Edward Fair- 
banks records a brown creeper, a pair of downy woodpeckers, and a tree 
sparrow which have been spending the winter in the vicinity. In one 
of the rural schools, where the children are interested in the birds, 
the chickadees have become so tame that they come to the window-sill 
and eat from the children's hands. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 37 

The following uncommon birds are reported for St. Johnsbury by- 
Mr. W. E. Balch: May 2, a flock of pine grosbeaks numbering from 150- 
200 individuals; on May 9, a Hock of purple martins; May 23, a pair of 
Bicknell's thrushes; June 3, a brown thrasher; June 4, three mourning 
warblers; June G, a yellow-billed cuckoo, all unusual for this vicinity. 

Miss Howe reports, additionally, the following for St. Johnsbury: 
Pine siskins, classed as winter visitors for that locality, nested there 
in 1915, and lingered all summer. A winter wren was heard singing 
all summer, and came to the food shelf the first nine days of November. 
Two young rose-breasted. grosbeaks were seen on August G. On May 30, 
seven Bohemian waxwings were seen eating seeds of the elm in East 
St. Johnsbury; the day following they were reported from Lyndon by 
Miss Clara Wilmarth. It is evident that they nested in that place as a 
young bird was brought to Miss Wilmarth on September 20. A pair 
of chewinks were found nesting in one of the rural school districts, 
June 2, and on September 24, two adults, with four young, were ob- 
served in the same vicinity. This is the first report of this bird in St. 

Mrs. A. . B. Morgan reports the following for Woodstock and 
vicinity: The bird census for the "Highlands" recorded 79 breeding 
pairs to 92 acres. The prairie horned lark nested on the farm for the 
first time, so far as is known. On June 2 the song was heard which 
was recognized as similar to that heard on the plains near Denver, 
Col. Soon after the horned lark was found walking about in the grass, 
uttering a low-pitched, purring note, quite different from the flight 
song. The wood thrushes are evidently moving along the range, one 
pair nesting in the "back lot" this year for the first time. 

A kingfisher wintered on the banks of the Ottauquechee. On Jan- 
uary 11, during a five-mile drive, three large flocks of snow buntings 
were seen. 

On May 23, a fine specimen of Swainson's hawk was taken in Hart- 
land village. It was 19 inches in length, and in the dark phase, closely 
resembling the rough-legged hawk. This species is seldom taken east 
of the Mississippi. 

Mr. G. L. Kirk reports hearing the song of the long-billed marsh 
wren at midnight. He says: "It is not uncommon for birds to utter brief 
snatches of song during the night, but, with few exceptions, these songs 
are not to be compared with their natural songs of the daytime. It was 

38 Joint Bulletin 2 

the writer's privilege, on July 25, 1915, to hear a large number of long- 
billed marsh wrens in full song in the middle of the night. For the 
purpose of fishing for bullheads, I went by boat to Little Otter Creek, 
where it winds through a large marsh just before emptying into Lake 
Champlain at Ferrisburgh. The night was perfectly clear and still and 


there was a full moon. The fishing party were on the creek from 9 
o'clock until nearly 12, and every minute the birds were in full song. 
There were scores of them, all singing with the same vim that might 
be expected of them at sunrise. Part of another evening was spent in 
the same place a few nights later while the moon was still bright, and 
the birds were singing as before." 

Mr. A. E. Tuttle of Bellows Falls has submitted the suggestion that 
all cemeteries should be made "bird sanctuaries," and that a law should 
be enacted requiring that all cats should be licensed, or muzzled during 
the summer. 


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